Definition of Microservices Architecture
One of the widely accepted approaches in the field of software development is called the microservices architecture which implies splitting an application into autonomous microservices that are interrelated only via well-defined API’s. It epitomizes the architecture of cloud native apps which has become very popular due to the advantages of the cloud environments for businesses.
Understanding Microservices Architecture
Core principles and characteristics of microservices
Several core principles and characteristics of microservices architecture set it apart from the traditional monolithic approach. Here are the key principles and characteristics of microservices:
1. Service Independence:
Principle: Independent deployable and manageable microservices that carry special business capacity.
Characteristic: All microservices are autonomous and operate on their independent databases and logic such that teams can build, launch and scale the services without any restrictions.
Principle: Microservices encourage a modular approach to software.
Characteristic: Microservices are based on business functions or processes whereby no more than one microservice exists for a single service. Modularity makes it easy to add or implement updates in the system.
3. Decentralized Data Management:
Principle: Each microservice has its own database or data store.
Characteristic: Data is decentralized, and microservices communicate with each other through well-defined APIs. This separation of data allows for autonomy and independence among services.
4. Communication via APIs:
Principle: Microservices communicate with each other through well-defined APIs.
Characteristic: Services expose APIs that enable communication between them. This API-driven communication ensures loose coupling and allows services to evolve independently.
5. Autonomous Development and Deployment:
Principle: Development teams have autonomy over their respective microservices.
Characteristic: Teams can choose their technology stack, development tools, and deployment schedules. This autonomy supports faster development cycles and innovation.
Principle: Microservices support horizontal scalability.
Characteristic: It is possible to scale services separately according to individualized resource needs. With this, it becomes possible to maximize on the available resources and manage different workloads efficiently.
7. Resilience and Fault Tolerance:
Principle: Microservices are designed to handle failures gracefully.
Characteristic: If one microservice is unable to succeed, an entire system is not compromised. Isolation of failure results in resilience, and the rest of the system continues to operate normally.
8. Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI/CD):
Principle: Microservices support continuous delivery and deployment.
Characteristic: This enables rapid and regular releases of each microservice which is developed individually before being tested. This supports agile development practices.
9. Containerization and Orchestration:
Principle: Microservices are often containerized for consistency and portability.
Characteristic: For instance, platforms like Docker ensure uniform packaging of microservices while other tools such as Kubernetes help in managing and scaling containers.
10. Monitoring and Observability:
Principle: Microservices require robust monitoring and observability.
Characteristic: Due to the distributed nature of microservices, monitoring tools are essential for tracking performance, identifying issues, and ensuring the overall health of the system.
By adhering to these principles and characteristics, microservices architecture aims to provide a scalable, flexible, and resilient approach to software development.
Comparison with monolithic architecture
|Size and complexity
|Monolithic architecture is one large application in which all components are directly connected to each other
|In a microservice architecture, an application is divided into many microservices, each of which is responsible for a specific functionality. This allows to divide a complex application into simpler and independent parts
|Flexibility and scalability
|In a monolithic architecture, changes and scaling require working with the entire application, which can be inefficient and complex
|Microservice architecture gives greater flexibility in developing and maintaining an application. Each microservice can be developed, tested and deployed independently of the others. This also makes it easier to scale since only the components you need can be scaled
|In a monolithic architecture, if one part of the application fails, it can cause the entire application to fail
|In a microservice architecture, if one microservice stops working, the remaining microservices continue to function independently
|Complexity to Deploy and Manage
|A monolithic architecture can be easier to deploy and manage because its elements are not bound by a complex dependency system
|Managing a microservices architecture can be more complex as it requires managing multiple independent services and their interactions
Advantages of Microservices in Outsourced Development
Main advantages of microservices
Microservice architecture also has its advantages:
Agility and Faster Time to Market:
Microservices support independent development and deployment, allowing development teams to work concurrently on different services. This modular approach facilitates faster iterations, quicker releases, and an overall agile development process, which is crucial for meeting tight deadlines in outsourced projects.
Microservices architecture ensures limitless scalability, allowing the system to organically expand with your business and handle any required workloads. Moreover, individual services can be scaled independently, addressing peak loads and potential bottlenecks as they arise.
Autonomous Development Teams:
Microservices architecture allows for autonomous development teams, each responsible for a specific microservice. This autonomy enhances collaboration, empowers teams to make independent decisions, and fosters a sense of ownership, which is beneficial for distributed teams in outsourced development.
Application updating for a microservice based system is much easier. These are stand-alone services that can exist without any dependence on other services. To illustrate, it is possible for an update of a single library inside a process to force a reboot of only that corresponding service without necessarily having the entire application reloaded.
Adaptability to Changing Requirements:
With a modular architecture, one does not need to update the whole system if he/she wants to make some amendments on any of the microservices. The flexibility is very important in external projects, whose requirements could be modified during implementation.
Increased Fault Tolerance:
The other microservices fail individually such that even if one fails; this does not cause a total collapse of the website. This increases the overall robustness of the system.
There is no requirement to develop all services simultaneously. By prioritizing the most relevant services for your business, a phased implementation approach allows effective management of both the product and the development budget.
Ability to Use Varied Technologies:
Microservices permit the utilization of diverse technologies and tools tailored to the specific needs of each service. For example, PHP may be employed for the administrative part of the site, while Node.js is used for reporting, showcasing the flexibility in technology selection within the architecture.
Challenges and Considerations
Communication Between Microservices:
Challenge: Communication among microservices is needed but may be difficult because of its distributed approach. Latency, network failures, and sustained API issues are some of the concerns that must be dealt with.
Consideration: Implementing robust communication protocols, utilizing asynchronous messaging patterns, and employing service meshes can help address communication challenges.
Data Consistency and Integrity:
Challenge: It is often difficult to manage data in a consistent manner for various decentralized microservices. In this case, it means taking extra care to ensure that data remains correct and up-to-date across all systems involved.
Consideration: You could use data consistency patterns like distributed transactions, event sourcing or even-well consistency modeled design.
Challenge: Microservices introduce additional security considerations, including securing communication between services, managing access controls, and ensuring data protection.
Consideration: Security issues can be addressed by implementing robust authentication and authorization mechanisms, securing API endpoints, as well as conducting regular security audits.
Challenge: Challenges faced when testing microservices include verifying that they work all together at the end, managing the test data and confirming messages exchanged between the services.
Consideration: Automated testing can be implemented alongside service virtualisation, while testing approaches such as contract testing can also assist in addressing this complexity.
Challenge: It also adds operational complexity as one has to monitor more services, conduct container orchestration, and deal with multi environment deployments.
Consideration: Container orchestration tools (for example, Kubernetes), infrastructure as code (IaC), and automated deployment and scaling will also help lower operational overhead.
Key signs that you need to move to a microservice architecture
When the volume of work intensifies and increases the size of the codebase for each component, it becomes increasingly difficult to upgrade and maintain a monolithic product.
System Expansion and Introduction of New Features
Adopting microservices architecture is beneficial for your product when it exhibits large-scale complexity increase in features.
Challenges in Release Velocity
When inclusion of a new feature demands complete check and rebuild the whole monolith leading to extending of both development and the test period, microservices architecture becomes a perfect answer. It also enhances regular discharge which allows quick responses to customers needs.
The advantage of microservices is enhanced scalability, flexible structure, and variety of technology. Nevertheless, developers might encounter complex inter-component connections and obstacles of keeping a big system.
However, monoliths are simpler, more efficient in terms of development and fit the purpose of MVP. Therefore one has to take into account possible obstacles related to scalability as well as implementation issues.
The decision ultimately rests on several key factors:
- Company Budget: Assess the finances that are at the disposal of the project. Scale and Business Logic of the Project: Note the magnitude and complication in e-commerce engagement.
- Availability and Scalability Requirements: Evaluate the requirement of scalability, high-availability and others.
- In-House IT Team and Experience: Also consider how equipped are your internal IT staff/team.
- Willingness to Outsource Development: Determine how much of project development you’re willing to outsource to external specialists.
For guidance tailored to your specific circumstances, Azati’s experts are available for consultation. They can provide insights into the optimal architectural choice for your online business and implement an online store or marketplace aligned with international best practices.